“Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and Scanning Probe Microscopy of Parchment” by Odlhya et al (2009)

Odlhya, M.; Theodorakopoulos, C.; Groot, J.; Bozec, L.; Horton, M.; “Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and Scanning Probe Microscopy of Parchment”, e-Preservation Science 6 (2009) 138-144

This paper describes the application of Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) together with Scanning Probe Microscopy (atomic force microscopy and micro-thermal analysis) on accelerated aged and archival parchment samples. Damage assessment by ATR-FTIR of collagen, the main constituent of parchment, was based on spectral changes in collagen, in particular within the amide I carbonyl stretching region.
This is known to be sensitive to changes in the triple helical structure of collagen. Damage assessment by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was based on changes in the periodic D spacing of the collagen fibrils. Measurements made on the same samples showed that in damaged samples there was partial and eventually complete loss in the D spacing of the collagen fibrils. This was particularly evident in accelerated aged samples subjected to pollutant gas (SO2). Micro-thermal analysis (micro-TA) of the same regions of parchment showed differences in the thermal behaviour on the micron-scale. The observed transitions occurred over a broader temperature range with increase in damage. In addition the same parchment samples were subjected to controlled environment testing using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). This revealed that damage in parchment had an effect on its dimensional response to increase in RH; the more damaged samples showed a lower response to changes in RH than the less damaged. So damage at the nano-scale, as indicated by AFM, can be related to changes observed at the macro-scale, as indicated by mechanical testing, and this influences the response of parchment to RH.


"Egg" armchair by Arne Jacobsen (1957),The MET Museum of Art

"Arne Jacobsen: 'Egg' armchair (61.7.46)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/11/eue/ho_61.7.46.htm (October 2006)


"Studies of ancient Egytian footwear ..." by Veldmeijer (2009)

Veldmeijer, A. J.; "Studies of ancient Egytian footwear. Technological aspects. Part XV. Leather curled-toe ankle shoes", PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology 6 (4) (2009) 1-21

In ancient Egypt sandals were a common commodity despite the fact that people must have been used to walking on bare feet. Shoes were less common though several types are known from the archaeological record. Despite the many examples of footwear, however, detailed studies are lacking. The present paper presents the closed shoes ‘curled-toe ankle shoes’, that are made of leather. The focus, as is usual in this series, lies on manufacturing technology; other topics are discussed in passing. A preliminary typology is proposed.


"The Gamo hideworkers of southwestern Ethiopia and Cross-Cultural Comparisons" by Weedman Arthur (2008)

Weedman Arthur, K. J.; "The Gamo hideworkers of southwestern Ethiopia and Cross-Cultural Comparisons", Anthropozoologica 43 (1) (2008) 67-98

Hideworking was practiced prehistorically and historically in nearly every region of the world. Today hideworking is practiced using stone tools only in parts of North America, Siberia, and Ethiopia. This article reviews and explains the diversity in hideworking practices among the Gamo of southern Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the variation of the stone scrapers, handles, and use of space. The Gamo hideworking practices and materials are then compared to customs in other parts of the world. It is concluded that intra-cultural and cross-cultural material and practical homogeneity and diversity can only be explained through an understanding of localized histories in the their global contexts.


"Analysis of collagen structure in parchment by small angle X-ray diffraction" by Kennedy et al (2003)

Kennedy, C. J., Nielsen, K.; Ramsay, L.; Wess, T. J., "Analysis of collagen structure in parchment by small angle X-ray diffraction", Fibre Diffraction Review 11 (2003) 117-118


"Apuntes sobre la elaboración del cuero y su historia" por Pantojo (2004)

Pantojo, A. F. V.; "Apuntes sobre la elaboración del cuero y su historia: noticias sobre una fábrica de curtir pieles en Algeciras", Eúphoros 7 (2004) 21-24


El trabajo del cuero pertenece al sector industrial o secundario, y su origen es tan antiguo como la existencia del hombre. En el presente artículo haremos un ligero recorrido por la historia de este material, su tratamiento y el desarrollo de su industria, y esto servirá de introducción para pasar después a la historia de una fábrica de curtir pieles en Algeciras, y que perteneció en los últimos años de su existencia a la familia Salas Fernández, de cuyo archivo familiar hemos transcrito un documento sobre la herencia y propiedad de este negocio. Los datos obtenidos nos servirán para ampliar un poco más las escasas noticias sobre este tipo de industrias en Algeciras.


About furs by Cripps (1903)

Cripps, George; About furs, Liverpool (1903)
URL (Internet Archive)

Table of contents:
I. A few general remarks on colour quality
II. Fur markets
III. Dressing, dyeing and topping
IV. Sheep skins and lambs used for fur purposes
V. Rabbits, hares, cats, opossums, lynxes and foxes
VI. Bears, skunks, beavers, otters, wolverines
VII. Sables, martens, kolinsky
VIII. Seals
IX. Lions, tigers and leopards
X. Fur linings and furs usually used for linings
XI. The care of furs


Traité de chimie appliquée aux arts par Dumas (1844)

Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Traité de chimie appliquée aux arts, Tome VII, Bechet Jeune Libraire-Editeur, Paris (1844)
URL (Google Books)

No capítulo 17 deste livro são descritos vários procedimentos de curtimenta de peles animais em uso em França na primeira metade do século XIX.

Texto não disponível


"Survey of current methods and materials used for the conservation of leather bookbindings" by St. John (2000)

St. John, Kristen; "Survey of current methods and materials used for the conservation of leather bookbindings", The Book and Paper Group Annual 19 (2000)

This survey gathered information from twenty-three book conservators on methods and materials used in the conservation of leather bookbindings in laboratories throughout the United States. The conservators work predominantly with special collections, in institutions with older collections, or have treatment responsibilities for special collections materials. The primary goal of this survey was to determine how conservators are treating leather bookbindings. A secondary goal was to determine how new materials and methods that have been developed or introduced to the field of book conservation within the past twenty-five years are being used in conservation labs.
The survey was divided into five sections. The first section asked for background information on staffing levels. The second section questioned respondents about the treatment of existing or original leather bindings. The third section of the survey sought information about rebinding books using new leather bindings. The fourth section covered the use of preparations on leather such as leather dressings, waxes and cellulose ethers. The fifth and final section inquired whether the labs had standardized their procedures for treating leather bindings.


"Parchment treatments", BPG-AIC (1994)

Newman, W.; Quandt, A.; et al, "18. Parchment treatments", in Paper Conservation Catalog, American Institute for Conservation Book and Paper Group, Washington (1994)


"A monta 'à brida´e 'à jineta' nas planícies da Península Ibérica - selas, arreios e protecção do cavaleiro cristão e muçulmano" por Pereira (2008)

Pereira, Franklin; "A monta 'à brida´e 'à jineta' nas planícies da Península Ibérica - selas, arreios e protecção do cavaleiro cristão e muçulmano", Mirabilia 8 (2008) 108-135

A Península Ibérica foi o palco de confrontação das duas escolas hípicas mais salientes da época medieval: a monta à jineta, introduzida no al-Andalus a partir da vinda de berberes para o exército califal, e a monta à brida, identificada com o exército cristão nortenho. Cada tipo de monta exige diferentes apetrechos para o cavalo, e diferentes protecções para o cavaleiro, implicando também diferentes tácticas de combate. Com a expulsão do domínio islâmico e a posterior introdução de armas de fogo, a monta à jineta passou a estar confinado ao toureio a cavalo e aos jogos da alta escola de equitação. O tipo de sela portuguesa tradicional parece decorrer da sela à jineta; a sua decoração de cravos metálicos está ligada às marcas obrigatórias nos jaezes califais do século X. A documentação do ofício da centuria de quinhentos mostra prolongamentos ainda nos dias de hoje.


Parade shield, 16th century, The MET Museum of Art

"Parade shield [Venice] (42.50.31)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (March 2007)


El uso de la piel animal como soporte para obra gráfica original por Martínez Garcia (2006)

Martínez Garcia, Óscar Juan; El uso de la piel animal como soporte para obra gráfica original, Tesis doctoral, Departamento de Dibujo, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (2006)

Desde los albores de la humanidad, los cueros y pieles animales han sido utilizados por la práctica totalidad de las civilizaciones, tanto en utensilios de todo tipo, como dentro del campo de los objetos que podríamos denominar artísticos. La presencia de este material en el arte ha sido, sin embargo, secundaria y tangencial, pero es precisamente aquí donde la presente tesis centrará su atención, tratando de aportar nuevas perspectivas para los cueros como soportes artísticos dentro del mundo del grabado y la estampación. Para lograr tal objetivo, la investigación se ha dividido en cuatro grandes bloques aparentemente independientes, pero que al mismo tiempo se complementan para avanzar hacia una comprensión progresiva de las posibilidades plásticas que el soporte que nos ocupa puede ofrecer al estampador. El primero de ellos versa sobre las características generales del soporte, su histología, composición y curtido, así como los posibles problemas e inconvenientes que pueden surgir durante su manipulación. En el segundo apartado se analizan diferentes manifestaciones artísticas que han tenido al cuero como soporte para su realización, dividiéndolas entre Arte sobre piel, aquel en el que el cuero sirve como receptor de la obra, y Arte en piel, cuando el material que nos ocupa deja de ser un mero receptáculo para pasar a convertirse en parte constituyente de la obra plástica. Finalizados estos dos apartados eminentemente teóricos, la investigación se adentra en el campo de experimentación práctica, la cual está a su vez dividida en dos apartados. En el primero, se lleva a cabo una catalogación de diferentes tipos de cueros según su respuesta a la impresión con diversos procedimientos y técnicas de grabado y estampación (xilografía, calcografía, punta seca, transferencia y estezado), analizando los resultados obtenidos de manera objetiva para dilucidar qué pieles son las idóneas para avanzar en nuestra investigación. Por último, el apartado final de la presente tesis.

From the beginnings of humanity, leather and animal skins have been used by the vast majority of civilisations with a practical purpose, but also in the creation of objects that could be called artistic. Nevertheless, these materials have been present in Art in a secondary and tangential way. This thesis will focus its attention on this aspect, trying to furnish new prospects to the leather as an artistic support in the engraving and printing fields. For achieving that objective, the research has been divided into four main sections, apparently independent, which all together go forward to a progressive understanding of the plastic possibilities offered to the engraver by the object under consideration. The first of these sections turns on the general features of the support, its histology, composition and tanning, as well as the eventual problems and issues that could arise during its manipulation. The second one analyses several artistic manifestations having used leather as their main support. These will be split into two main groups: Art on leather, where the material is the holder of the work itself and Art of leather, where the material under study is not a mere receptacle any more but a constituent part of the plastic work. Concluded these two eminently theoretical sections, the research goes into the field of plastic experimentation, divided itself into two new sections. The first of them will classify the leathers according to their printing response to different engraving and printing methods and techniques (i.e. xylography, etching, dry point, embossing) analysing the results in an objective way in order to identify the best materials for the research. Finally, the very last section of the thesis is completely dedicated to the creation of a project for an original plastic work reflecting the conclusions obtained during the research and using the leathers not only as a support for the pieces, but as one of their creative elements. As a complement to the theoretical development of the work, all the printing samples using the different techniques have been included in an attached document. The statistical tables elaborated with the analysis of the results obtained during the cataloguing process have also been attached.


"Evaluation of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation of ancient parchment" by Walczak et al (2008)

Walczak, M.; Oujja, M.; Crespo-Arcá, L.; García, A.; Méndez, C.; Moreno, P.; Domingo, C.; Castillejo, M.; "Evaluation of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation of ancient parchment", Applied Surface Science 255 (5) Part 2 (2008) 3179-3183
doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.09.011 (restricted access)

In this work, femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation of ancient parchment is evaluated as a novel cleaning technique that, in comparison with nanosecond (ns) irradiation, could considerably reduce the thermal and chemical damage to the substrate. To investigate the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with parchment, two historical specimens were exposed to Ti:Sapphire laser using the fundamental and second harmonic emission (795 and 398 nm, 120 fs pulses). The ablation threshold fluences were determined resulting in values of 1.1 and 0.15 J/cm2 at 795 and 398 nm respectively. A study of the effects of the fs laser–parchment interaction as a function of fluence and wavelength was carried out and the results were compared with those obtained for Nd:YAG laser irradiation (532 and 355 nm, pulse duration 6 ns). FT-Raman spectra show the disappearance of the amorphous carbon bands upon fs treatment, indicative of the removal of the carbonaceous contamination of the parchment. At the same time the parchment structural bands remain unaffected. Spectrofluorimetric measurements reveal an enhancement of photodegradation products in the substrate. Results are discussed in terms of the comparison between expected mechanisms operating in the fs and ns irradiation regimes.


The shoe industry by Allen (1916?)

Allen, F. J.; The shoe industry, The vocation bureau of Boston, 1916(?)
URL (Internet Archive)

Table of contents:
I. Historical sketch
II. Shoe machinery
III. Last-making
IV. Pattern-making
V. Leather
VI. The department of shoe manufacture
VII. Methods in shoe manufacture
VIII. The upper leather department
IX. The stitching department
X. The sole leather department
XI. The making department
XII. Finishing, treeing, packing and shipping
XIII. Employment conditions and supplementary material
XIV. Explanation of the terms used in shoemaking
XV. Shoe and leather bibliography


Poulaine, c. 1300-1450, The MET Museum of Art

"Shoe (29.158.914)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/07/euwb/ho_29.158.914.htm (October 2006)



"The chemical degradation of leather" by Larsen (2008)

Larsen, R.; " The chemical degradation of leather", CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry 62 (11) (2008) 899-902
DOI: 10.2533/chimia.2008.899 (restricted access)

The chemical deterioration of vegetable tanned leather is caused by acid hydrolysis and oxidation due to environmental deteriorative factors like air pollutants, heat and light. In addition, the type of tannin material influences the rate of deterioration. The degree of deterioration can be measured by the fall in the shrinkage temperature (Ts) of the leather. New analysis of data shows that, although environmental factors have a generally larger influence on the deterioration, the average degree of oxidation is greater in older leathers and it significantly influences the Ts in these materials. Moreover, it is also shown that acid pollution is indicated in the relation between pH and the sulphate content measured in the leathers although ammonia is released by oxidation of amino acids and may influence the pH value in acid-damaged leathers.


Ramsden Shagreen Opera Monocular, c. 1770, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona

This monocular has a short round parallel cardboard barrel, covered with shagreen. The objective is contained in a brass cell and is a single non-achromatic lens (possibly a replacement). It has one cardboard draw, covered in red leather with tooled on silver-colored floral designs. The single eye lens, which is cracked, is mounted in a flared eyecup made of a material which could be ivory painted or colored black. The two black rings at either end of the barrel are made of this same material. It is signed "RAMSDEN LONDON" on the draw, with the eyecup to the right. It comes with a red leather-covered cardboard or wood case.


"... piel en la indumentaria (Murcia, ss.XIII-XV)" por Martínez Martínez (2002)

Martínez Martínez, M.; "Oficios, artesanía y usos de la piel en la indumentaria (Murcia, ss. XIII-XV)", Historia, instituciones, documentos 29 (2002) 237-274

Análisis del trabajo de la piel y del cuero cola Murcia bajomedieval, que trata: La organización del espacio urbano y periurbano para dichas actividades, además de la identidad de los artesanos; la evolución y desarrollo corporativos de los oficios de la industria del cuero y sus efectos sociales y medioambientales; y, finalmente, los usos de la piel y el cuero en la indumentaria, representativa de estructura social.

Analysis of the use of skins and leather in late medieval Murcia, dealing with the following: the organisation of urban and suburban areas for such activities, in addition the identity of the craftsmen; the corporate evolution and development of trades in the leather industry and their social and environmental effects; finally, the use of skins and leather in clothing, as representative of social structure.


"Restoring leather castors" by Barrington

Michael Barrington, "Restoring leather castors"

From the text:
The origin of the castor goes back to certainly the early 16th century when, 'baby cages' and invalid chairs are known to have been equipped with wheels. They were used in England certainly towards the end of 17th Century and by 1690 there was an established castor-making trade in London. Castors, to begin with, were simple hardwood wheels mounted on horizontal axles but by 1700 vertical spindles mounting jaws in which horizontal axles and wheels were carried were in use. The wheels were of wood, probably boxwood which, by the 1730s, tended to be replaced by leather wheels and then brass wheels.


Cuir bouilli case, c.1450–1500, MET Museum of Art

"Case (Etui) with an amorous inscription [Italy] (50.53.1)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/nupt/ho_50.53.1.htm


Des ouvriers au travail à la chamoiserie Boinot, en 1920

"Des ouvriers au travail à la chamoiserie Boinot, en 1920: L' album Photos", Le patrimoine industriel de Poitou-Charentes [en ligne], Région Poitou-Charentes - Inventaire du patrimoine culturel, 2007


Cette publication en ligne a été conçue et réalisée par le Service de l'inventaire de la Région Poitou-Charentes, à partir de l'enquête sur le patrimoine industriel de Poitou-Charentes menée, de 1986 à 1993, par Wulf van Riesen et Jean-Pierre Azéma et, de 1994 à 2004, par Pascale Moisdon-Pouvreau, avec le concours de Jacqueline Debelle, Judith Guéret, Aurélie Liège, Olivia Pelletier, Charlotte Pon, Geneviève Renaud.


Gloves and the glove trade by Ellis (1921)

Ellis, B. E.; Gloves and the glove trade, Pitman & Sons, London (1921)
URL (Internet Archive)

Table of contents:
1.The antiquity of the glove
2.The glove as a symbol
3.The glove in the realm of fashion
4.Leather gloves, skins and their origin
5.Skin-dressing and treatment
6.Dyeing and dressing the leather
7.Glove cutting
8.Sewing and finishing leather gloves
9.Fabric gloves, origin of the industry
10.Making fabric gloves
12.Distribution of the industry
13.British glove trade organisations


"Issues in the preservation of manually tanned skin materials" by Klokkernes (2008)

Torunn Klokkernes, "Issues in the preservation of manually tanned skin materials", CeROArt 2 (2008), [En ligne], mis en ligne le 17 octobre 2008.
URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/index501.html.

The field of conservation relates to material science and technology as a fundamental aspect to understand artefacts’ material properties and deterioration. The research performed in this study is an initial approach to the understanding of the complex nature of manually tanned skin materials manufactured by individual tradition bearers from indigenous cultures in the circumpolar area; it instigates a series of research topics which can be further addressed. Contextual interpretation comprises traditional knowledge and practices as well as the empirical information obtained through investigative and analytical methods. This requires collaboration between several areas of knowledge, and raises questions with regard to the interpretation of analytical results in the investigation of these material groups.

La conservation use de l’analyse matérielle et des technologies pour mieux comprendre les propriétés des artefacts et leurs mécanismes de dégradation. La présente recherche constitue une approche de la nature complexe des cuirs tannés au sein des cultures indigènes de la région circumpolaire. Elle suscite par ailleurs de nouveaux thèmes de recherches connexes. L’interprétation contextuelle, de son côté, englobe la connaissance des pratiques ainsi que les informations obtenues par des méthodes d’investigation analytique et exige la collaboration entre divers secteurs et disciplines.


"Lindow man, Tollund man and other peat bog bodies" by Painter (1991)

Painter, T. J.; "Lindow man, tollund man and other peat-bog bodies: the preservative and antimicrobial action of Sphagnan, a reactive glycuronoglycan with tanning and sequestering properties", Carbohydrate Polymers 15 (2) (1991) 123-142
doi:10.1016/0144-8617(91)90028-B (restricted access)

The tanning reaction that contributes to the preservation of animal tissues by peat consists of a Maillard reaction between the free amino-groups of collagen and reactive carbonyl groups in a soluble glycuronoglycan (‘sphagnan’) containing residues of D-lyxo-5-hexosulopyranuronic acid. Sphagnan is a complex, pectin-like material which is covalently linked to cellulosic and amyloid-like chains in living Sphagnum moss, but slowly liberated by autohydrolysis into the ambient water as the dead moss is converted into peat. It is a precursor of aquatic humus from Sphagnum peat, and the tanning of adventitious collagen in animal remains is only one manifestation of the continuous incorporation of ammonia, aminoacids and polypeptides from a wide variety of sources into the structure of the humic acid molecule. Sphagnan can also suppress microbial activity by reacting with exo-enzymes and sequestering essential, multivalent metal cations.


Bog bodies of the Iron Age by Susan K. Lewis, NOVA-PBS (2006)

More than a thousand preserved bodies and skeletons have emerged from the peat bogs of Northwest Europe, and scientists now have the tools to study the remains in such detail that they can, in a sense, resurrect ancient people. Drawing on the work of Dutch bog-body scholar Wijnand van der Sanden, the following map charts more than 80 important finds and includes profiles of some of the most fascinating.


"Dating bog bodies by means of 14C-AMS" by van der Plicht et al (2004)

van der Plicht, J.; van der Sanden, W. A. B.; Aerts, A. T.; Streurman, H. J.; "Dating bog bodies by means of 14C-AMS", Journal of Archaeological Science 31(4) (2004) 471-491
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2003.09.012 (restricted access)

We have made efforts to date a substantial number of bodies from northwest European peat bogs by means of 14C. In our research, we compared materials such as skin, hair, bone, textile, leather and wood where available. Most of the bodies we investigated were found to date from the Late Iron Age/Roman period (c. 2nd century BC–4th century AD). Our data set shows that bog bodies in general can indeed be successfully dated by means of 14C analysis. Our results contradict comments in the literature (e.g. C.S. Briggs, Did they fall or were they pushed? Some unresolved questions about bog bodies, in: R.C. Turner, R.G. Scaife (Eds.), Bog Bodies—New Discoveries and New Perspectives, British Museum Press, London, 1995, pp. 168–182) to the effect that ‘peat bogs can age corpses so as to distort completely the usefulness of Radiocarbon’.


Bourrelier d'après l'Encyclopédie de Diderot et d'Alembert

BOURRELIER, s. m. ouvriers qui font les harnois de chevaux de carrosse, de charrette ; ils sont de la communauté des Selliers. Ils ont été nommés bourreliers, du collier des chevaux, qu’on appelloit autrefois bourrelet.

Deutsch: Riemenmacher, Sattelmacher.
English: Harness maker, saddler.
Español: Guarnicionero, talabartero.
Français: Bourrelier.
Italiano: Sellaio (?).
Português: Correeiro.


Histoire de la chaussure par Lacroix (Bibliophile Jacob) (1862)

Lacroix, P.; Duchesne, A.; Seré, F.; Histoire de la chaussure depuis l'antiquité la plus reculée jusq'à nos jours: suivie de l'histoire sérieuse et drolatique des cordonniers, Delahays Libraire-Éditeur, Paris (1862)


"La contribution de l'archéobiologie à l'étude de l'artisanat romain" par Deschler-Erb (2005)

Deschler-Erb, S.; "La contribution de l'archéobiologie à l'étude de l'artisanat romain", in Michel Polfer (éd.), Artisanat et économie romaine: Italie et provinces occidentales de l'Empire. Actes du 3ème colloque international d'Erpeldange (Luxembourg) sur l'artisanat romain , 14-16 Octobre 2004, Monographies instrumentum 32, Montagnac (2005) 31-38

L’archéologie romaine regroupe différentes disciplines «classiques» comme la céramologie, la numismatique ou l’architecture. L’archéobiologie, qui, en l’absence de sources littéraires, a été introduite dès le 19ème siècle pour l’étude des périodes préhistoriques, commence seulement à être intégrée à l’archéologie romaine comme une discipline à part entière. Le but de cet exposé est de montrer le potentiel du travail interdisciplinaire pour l’étude de l’artisanat romain.
L’archéobiologie regroupe deux disciplines : l’archéozoologie et l’archéobotanique. Aujourd’hui encore, il y a relativement beaucoup d’archéologues qui pensent que ces deux disciplines ne donnent que des informations sur la nourriture. Cette vision est très réductrice. En réalité, l’archéozoologie nous donne des informations très variées sur l’importance des animaux pour les sociétés anciennes, que ce soit comme puissance de travail, comme animal de compagnie, comme fournisseur de matières premières ou encore comme valeur symbolique. Dans les sociétés préindustrielles, l’animal jouait donc un rôle multiple. Fournir de la nourriture n’était qu’un seul de ces rôles. Il en va de même pour l’archéobotanique : les plantes peuvent être employées aussi bien comme remèdes que comme combustible. Elles avaient également une valeur symbolique. On utilisait le bois dans la construction des maisons et pour fabriquer différents objets. Les plantes permettaient encore de confectionner des textiles. Bref, l’archéobiologie s’occupe de toutes les matières organiques. Elle enrichit notre connaissance de la vie quotidienne antique en nous donnant des informations multiples, complémentaires des méthodes «classiques».
Prenons par exemple la tannerie, un artisanat organique typique.


"NMR and EPR as analytical tools to investigate...archaeological leathers" by Bardet et al (2009)

Bardet, M.; Gerbaud, G.; Le Pape, L.; Hediger, S.; Trân, Q.-K.; Boumill, N.; "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance as analytical tools to investigate structural features of archaeological leathers", Analytical Chemistry 81 (4) (2009) 1505-1511 
DOI:10.1021/ac802052a (restricted access) / PDF

Archaeological waterlogged leathers dated from the 13th to 17th century have been analyzed using carbon-13 high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The NMR and EPR spectra have been compared to modern vegetable-tanned leathers and crude hide. Both techniques allowed us to fully characterize the samples and better understand the changes occurring during aging in water environment. The main features of the archaeological leathers are the high contents in iron and the absence of residual vegetable tannins. Traces of lubricants could not be detected either. The accumulation of iron oxides may have played a role in the conservation of the archaeological objects and explain the surprising good conservation state of the leather samples as was observed in the NMR spectra. The absence of tannins and lubricants in the studied archaeological samples is also discussed. It may be a consequence of aging in water-rich environment. The analysis strategy described in this paper can be systematically applied to characterize archaeological or historical leather samples.


"Handling and care of dry bird and mammal specimens" by Ramotnik (2006)

Ramotnik, C. A.; "Handling and care of dry bird and mammal specimens", Conserve O Gram 11/09, National Park Service (2006)

Natural history specimens represent the biological legacy of our predecessors. They are the tools used by researchers to assess how species are distributed in geographical and ecological time and space. How we care for these collections today will directly affect their significance and usefulness in the future. Some bird and mammal specimens in North American collections are over two hundred years old. All specimens, new or old, share common preservation and maintenance needs. The handling and care of dry bird and mammal skins, skeletons, and parts is highlighted in this Conserve O Gram.


Methods in the art of taxidermy by Davie (1900)

Davie, O.; Methods in the art of taxidermy, David MacKay, Philadelphia (1900)

From the Preface:
In April 1882, my artist delivered to me the first drawings intended for this work. As specimens were procured from time to time, from which to make illustrations of the various procedures in the skinning and mounting of animals, the progress was continued until the present volume is the consummation of our efforts. We have likewise incorporated some reproductions from photographs of actual work by American taxidermists. All scientific technicalities which could possibly be avoided have been omitted in the text. Our aim has been to produce a work amply illustrating the various modes of procedure in the art of taxidermy, intended especially to instruct the beginner. Those who are experienced in the art may also be aided by some new and practical methods which we have included within these pages.
We have not followed any established order of zoological classification in the arrangement of the chapters, but have taken up the practical lessons on birds first, because they usually give the most satisfactory results to the beginner. The mammals, which are more difficult, come next in order and, lastly, the complicated preparations of crustaceans, fishes, reptiles, etc.


The British Library Database of Bookbindings online

The British Library - Database of Bookbindings
This database is a finding aid to the British Library's bookbinding collections. It includes information and images for selected items from the Library's rich collection of fine bindings of books printed in western Europe from the fifteenth century to date. There is also a selection from the valuable bookbindings collections of the Library's partner, the National Library of the Netherlands. The database is a work in progress and its scope will be widened as resources allow.
(Text from the website database)


American Embossed Leather Bindings, 1825-1855 by Wolf (1990)

Wolf, E.; From Gothic Windows to Peacocks: American Embossed Leather Bindings, 1825-1855, The Library Company of Philadelphia, Philadelphia (1990)


Leather for libraries by Hulme et al (1905)

Hulme, E. W.; Parker, J.; Seymour-Jones, A.; Davenport, C.; Williamson, F.J.; Leather for libraries, Published for the Sound Leather Committee of Library Association by The Library Supply Co., London (1905)
URL (Internet Archive)

Table of contents:

Chapter I:
"History of Sumach Tanning in England, Degradation of the Manufacture of Leather, and History of the Reform Movement". By E. W. Hulme

Chapter II:

"The Causes of Decay in Bookbinding Leathers". By J. G. Parker

Chapter III:

"Provenance, Characteristics, and Values of Modern Bookbinding Leathers". By A. Seymour -Jones

Chapter IV:
The Repairing and Binding of Books for Public Libraries". By C. Davenport

Chapter V:

"Specification for the Fittings of a Small Bindery". By F. J. Williamson


The manufacture of leather, Skin Deep (1996-2000)

As várias etapas do curtume a vegetal de uma pele animal estão descritas em vários números da newsletter bianual Skin Deep, da Hewit & Sons, publicados entre 1996 e 2000:

Vol.1, 1996:
"The manufacture of leather: part 1" by David Lanning (htm, pdf)

Vol.2, 1996
"The manufacture of leather: part 2" by David Lanning (htm, pdf)

Vol.3, 1997
"The manufacture of leather: part 3" by William McLean (htm, pdf)

Vol.4, 1997
"The manufacture of leather: part 4" by William McLean (htm, pdf)

Vol.5, 1998
"The manufacture of leather: part 5" by Roger Barlee (htm, pdf)

Vol.6, 1998
"The manufacture of leather: part 6" by Roger Barlee (htm, pdf)

Vol.7, 1999
"The manufacture of leather: part 7" by Roger Barlee (htm, pdf)

Vol.8, 1999
"The manufacture of leather: part 8" by Thomas McNeill (htm, pdf)

Vol.9, 2000
"The manufacture of leather: part 9" by Roger Barlee (htm, pdf)

Vol.10, 2000
"The manufacture of leather: part 10" by Roger Barlee (htm, pdf)

E sobre a curtimenta mineral com sais de alumínio:

Vol.11, 2001
"Aluminium tannages" by Roger Barlee (htm, pdf)


Descriptions des arts et métiers du cuir (1775)

Texto não disponível

Bertrand, J.-E. (ed.); Descriptions des arts et métiers: Contenant l'art du tanneur, du chamoiseur, du mégissier, du corroyeur, du parcheminier, de l'hongroyeur, du maroquinier, de travailler les cuirs dorés & argentés, du cordonnier, du paumier-raquetier & de la paume, Tome III, Nouvelle Edition, Société Typographique, Neuchâtel (1775)
URL (Google Books)

Para além da digitalização do Google existe também a do Conservatoire numérique des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) disponível em http://cnum.cnam.fr/fSYN/4KY58.3.html


Leathercraft by Johnson & Newkirk (1945)

Johnson, W. H.; Newkirk, L.V.; The hobbycraf series: leathercraft, The Webb Publishing Company, Saint Paul Minnesota (1945)

Table of contents:
I. The materials you use

II. Leatherworking tools and accessories

III. Working with leather

IV. Things to make


Making a saddle (1978)

Making a saddle, Council for Small Industries in Rural Areas, London (1978)
This book sets out to show in simple language and photographic illustration, methods employed in making a saddle - methods which apart from the use of some synthetic materials have remained unchanged for generations.


Notas sobre los cueros de Córdoba por Davillier (1879)

Davillier, J. C.; Notas sobre los cueros de Córdoba: guadamaciles de España, (traducidas del francés por Enrique Claudio Girbal), Imprenta del Hospicio Provincial, Gerona (1879)