"Evaluation of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation of ancient parchment" by Walczak et al (2008)

Walczak, M.; Oujja, M.; Crespo-Arcá, L.; García, A.; Méndez, C.; Moreno, P.; Domingo, C.; Castillejo, M.; "Evaluation of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation of ancient parchment", Applied Surface Science 255 (5) Part 2 (2008) 3179-3183
doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.09.011 (restricted access)

In this work, femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation of ancient parchment is evaluated as a novel cleaning technique that, in comparison with nanosecond (ns) irradiation, could considerably reduce the thermal and chemical damage to the substrate. To investigate the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with parchment, two historical specimens were exposed to Ti:Sapphire laser using the fundamental and second harmonic emission (795 and 398 nm, 120 fs pulses). The ablation threshold fluences were determined resulting in values of 1.1 and 0.15 J/cm2 at 795 and 398 nm respectively. A study of the effects of the fs laser–parchment interaction as a function of fluence and wavelength was carried out and the results were compared with those obtained for Nd:YAG laser irradiation (532 and 355 nm, pulse duration 6 ns). FT-Raman spectra show the disappearance of the amorphous carbon bands upon fs treatment, indicative of the removal of the carbonaceous contamination of the parchment. At the same time the parchment structural bands remain unaffected. Spectrofluorimetric measurements reveal an enhancement of photodegradation products in the substrate. Results are discussed in terms of the comparison between expected mechanisms operating in the fs and ns irradiation regimes.


The shoe industry by Allen (1916?)

Allen, F. J.; The shoe industry, The vocation bureau of Boston, 1916(?)
URL (Internet Archive)

Table of contents:
I. Historical sketch
II. Shoe machinery
III. Last-making
IV. Pattern-making
V. Leather
VI. The department of shoe manufacture
VII. Methods in shoe manufacture
VIII. The upper leather department
IX. The stitching department
X. The sole leather department
XI. The making department
XII. Finishing, treeing, packing and shipping
XIII. Employment conditions and supplementary material
XIV. Explanation of the terms used in shoemaking
XV. Shoe and leather bibliography


Poulaine, c. 1300-1450, The MET Museum of Art

"Shoe (29.158.914)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/07/euwb/ho_29.158.914.htm (October 2006)