Layers of meaning: clothing on the Amur by Rajagopalan (2003)

Rajagopalan, S.; Layers of meaning: Clothing on the Amur, e-publication of The National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden (2003)

In the Amur region of southern Siberia, the production of clothing and the beliefs associated with its making and wearing reveal an extreme fluidity of boundaries between the human and animal world. This publication discusses the clothing cultures of two groups – the Nivkhi and Orochi. It explores the making of clothing, the motif patterns peculiar to this region, sewing as a woman’s preserve, and the changes in Amur clothing from the pre-Soviet to the post-Soviet period.

Principles of Amur clothing
Until the early decades of the twentieth century, the Nivkhi and Orochi used mainly fish skin and animal furs for their clothing. The use of fish skin or animal pelts for clothing speaks of the centrality of fishing and hunting in these cultures.
The making of fish clothing (skin of salmon and carp is particularly suitable) characterizes the Nivkhi to the extent that early Chinese records of the people referred to them as 'fish skin tribes'. Their fish skin clothing distinguished them from other neighbouring groups and became a crucial marker of their identity.

Also available in Nederlands:Rajagopalan, S.; Lagen van Betekenis: Kleding aan de Amoer, Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden (2003)

In het gebied rond de rivier de Amoer in zuidelijk Siberië is duidelijk te zien dat bij het maken en dragen van kleding en de opvattingen die hierbij een rol spelen, de grenzen tussen de werelden van mens en dier in hoge mate in elkaar overvloeien. In deze publicatie worden de kledingculturen van twee groepen, de Nivch en Orotsj, behandeld. Er wordt uitgebreid ingegaan op het maken van de kleding, de streekspecifieke motieven, het naaien als domein van vrouwen en de veranderingen in Amoer-kleding van de pre-sovjet- tot de post-sovjetperiode.


Art 2008: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on NDT of Art, Jerusalem

Na 9.ª Conferência Internacional Art 2008 - "Non-destructive investigations and microanalysis for the diagnostics and conservation of cultural and environmental heritage", que decorreu no passado mês de Maio em Jerusalém, foram apresentadas comunicações relacionadas com estudos aplicados a pergaminhos e a cabedais.
O volume 13, número 9, do NDT.net Journal editado em Setembro de 2008, disponibiliza online e na íntegra algumas dessas contribuições. São elas:

A. Bernath, L. Miu, M. Guttmann
"Identifications, microanalysis, evaluations and diagnosis of an ethnographical leather object"

The aim of this study is the examination, documentation, analysis and diagnosis of a headgear with bit and reins, made of leather and metal, from Abyssinia (the old name of Ethiopia), belonging to Karl F. Jikeli collection of “Franz Binder” Museum, from “ASTRA” National Museum Complex, for the purpose of drawing up the object conservation strategy. Due to the scarce information regarding the artifact, we started our work by trying to confirm the object origins, and carried out all the available investigations for a good documentation. After accurate visual and microscopic comparative examinations that revealed the different leather natures and their surface states, we used micro-chemical analysis for identifying various tanning procedures, the presence of fats and copper, etc. Furthermore, in collaboration with INCDTP – Division Leather & Footwear Research Institute, we have been doing a series of specific and advanced analyses, as the employment of the micro hot table (MHT) technique to obtain relevant results, and measurements/ evaluations on the grain of various leathers. All investigations not only revealed some interesting and detailed but also necessary information for a proper diagnosis and planning of the various stages of the conservation activity.

M. Bicchieri , M. Monti, G. Piantanida, A. Sodo, M. Tanasi,
"Inside the parchment"

Even though parchment has been applied as library and archive substrate for centuries, this material’s structure and degradation patterns are less explored than paper’s ones. In this preliminary work vibrational studies highlighting distinction between parchment components are presented. Advances in conservation methods can in fact be achieved by an improved knowledge of the microscopic and spectroscopic features of the parchment components.
Studies of the chemical interactions with the products used in manufacturing and writing will be presented. Standard glycine, proline and hydroxyproline FTIR spectra were compared to different kind of parchment and other collagen-based materials. Some samples were inked with different kind of inks (carbon black, iron-gall, carbon black mixed with iron II sulfate or iron-gall) other subjected to invasive treatments so as to simulate damages induced by catastrophes or by a recently developed restoring treatment. Spectral variations due to artificially induced modification of parchment were monitored and analyzed.

M. Geba, A. Vlad, A. Ioniuc, D. Manea, N. Vornicu, C. Bibire
"Two early medieval parchment manuscripts- study of component materials"

Within the Restoration-Conservation Centre for Cultural Heritage of Iasi two early medieval manuscripts on parchment (Tetra Evangel and The Greek Evangel) were investigated. The restoring of these manuscripts gave the opportunity of a thorough research on the writing materials, pigments used in the ornamentation and the base material. The study of the base material, carried out by IR spectrophotometry (Transmission and ATR), lead to the identification of a natural polypeptide (parchment) (specific bands at 1630 cm-1- amide I and at 1530 cm-1 - amide II), and also of calcium carbonate (chalk), used as surface covering material. Concerning the writing materials we identified ferro - gallic ink (The Greek Evangel), a mixture of ferro-gallic and carbon ink (Tetra Evangel – the first part), carbon ink (Tetra Evangel – the second part) and a cinnabar red ink (Tetra Evangel. The decoration of both manuscripts (frontispieces, lateral bands, frames, miniatures) are of a large chromatic varieties. The pigments were identified by optical microscopy, micro chemical tests and XRF. The pigments determined are: gold (Au), iron oxides (Fe), cinnabar, malachite, transparent copper green, madder lake, lead carbonate (Pb).The phosphorus (S) identified may come from a protein (yolk), used as glue or protection layer. The similarity of decoration materials points to the manufacture of both manuscripts in the same area of the Byzantine culture. One manuscript (Tetra Evangel) was subjected to restoration, in order to stop and remove the physical, chemical and biological deteriorations (undulations, brittleness, chromatic alterations, pigments flaking). The restoration operations consisted in cleaning, dressing, flattening, voids infilling and pigments consolidation.

M. Simileanu, R. Radvan, L. Miu, M. Giurginca
"Study of the effect of laser cleaning on collagenous structures"

Cleaning procedures applied on organic substrates of artifacts can be challenging due to their high sensitivity to all exterior factors, their fragile nature demanding a high precision and accurate monitoring of the cleaning process. This paper contains researches about the effect that the laser restoration procedures (laser cleaning, mainly) induce on organic substrates such as leather and parchment. Laser cleaning of leather & parchment is a novel technique that has the potential to provide contactless, chemical-free cleaning of historically important documents, overall providing a high accuracy successful cleaning. However, the effect of laser cleaning on the collagenous structure of parchment is still poorly understood, as is the effect of the wavelength or the energy density (fluence level). This study comprises aspects of the ageing of the materials and also specific issues concerning conservation of their photomechanical properties, correlating information obtained using specific scientific methods of analysis such as colorimetry, optical microscopy, shrinkage temperature of the organic fibers and NIR Spectroscopy. Surface monitoring based on chromatic modulation has been carried out for the laser cleaning of different types of leather and parchment samples, working with the spectral signature of reflected light from the surface. Results show that the spectral parameters derived from the chromatic detection provide not only clear indication of the surface cleanliness and the substrate damage but also useful chromatic information on the surface. The outcome of these experiments consists in an on-line control of laser induced material removal from artworks under restoration, phenomena encountered in photo-induced ablation.

O. Hahn, I. Rabin, T. Wolff, B. Kanngießer, W. Malzer, I. Mantouvalou, U. Schade, A. Masic, G. Weinberg
"Non-Destructive Investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls"

The Dead Sea Scrolls belong to the most important cultural assets of mankind. Their long term preservation and study is a challenge that demands an interdisciplinary approach. As early as the 1950s natural scientists assisted the scholars in studying the scrolls. It was at this time that the first extensive study of the scroll material took place. It was found that most fragments were written not on leather but on parchment. In addition, a method for determining the age of the parchment was developed which is still of value today. In the 1990s the AMS-C14 method confirmed the palaeographic determination of the age of the manuscripts. The use of carbon ink throughout the scrolls is also consistent with the known scribal practices of that time. There are, however, manuscripts, and among them the famous Genesis Apocryphon Scroll, which exhibit ink corrosion, normally associated with iron-gall inks. Today, 60 years after their discovery, a community of scientists from the Jewish National and University Library (JNUL), the Technical University of Berlin (TU Berlin), the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) and Fritz-Haber-Institute of the MPG (FHI) set out to scientifically investigate the finds of Qumran using the most modern methods. The results of the study will be used to determine the provenance of the texts as well as to contribute to their long-term preservation. A considerable part of the non-destructive investigation is taking place in the Berlin State Library and at the Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung , BESSY II. Preliminary investigations, performed at the BAM on some fragments, were used to evaluate the extent to which X-ray analytical methods can provide information regarding the geographical origin of the fragments and match the individual pieces. The interpretation of the measurement results is made more difficult by age and storage of the objects. It is believed that ageing processes as well as conservation methods have altered the samples in addition to the changes caused by environmental influences. In collaboration with the TU Berlin, the samples from the parchments found in the caves near Qumran were tested by means of three-dimensional synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence analysis (3D-SyXRF). The aim of this non-destructive investigation was the identification of the inorganic material used in the manufacture of the parchments.
The XRF experiments are supported by the non-destructive analysis by means of synchrotron based infrared spectroscopy (SyFTIR) in collaboration with BESSY II as well as optical and electron microscopy in collaboration with Fritz-Haber-Institute (FHI).


Report of the Committee on leather for bookbinding (1905)

Royal Society of Arts & Worshipful Company of Leathersellers (ed.), Report of the Committee on leather for bookbinding, George Bell & Sons, London (1905)

From the introduction:
The decay of leather used for bookbindings has for long been a subject which has attracted a great deal of attention and interest amongst librarians and book collectors. The first attempt to investigate the conditions leading to such decay appears to have been made by Faraday, whose historic researches into the condition of the library of the Athenaeum Club in 1842 still remain the only serious attempt made to investigate this subject. Of late years the matter has received still more earnest attention, owing to a growing belief among librarians that the quality of the leathers now made for bookbinding purposes is inferior to that made previous to, say, the middle of the last century. The matter has been discussed on several occasions at meetings of the Library Association, and in the year 1899 a meeting of persons specially interested in the question was held at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in Regent Street, under the chairmanship of Mr. Cobden-Sanderson. This meeting formed itself into a Committee to encourage the production of sound and durable leather for bookbinding. The Committee held several meetings, and some of its members carried out a good deal of investigation and experiment, but it appears to have come to the conclusion that the matter was too large a one to be dealt with by a separate and informal body of the sort, and it was decided to request the Council of the Society of Arts to undertake a thorough investigation of the whole question, and, after having done so, to issue a Report upon it.


"Treatment techniques for the vellum covered furniture of Carlo Bugatti" by Munn (1989)

Munn, J.; "Treatment Techniques for the Vellum Covered Furniture of Carlo Bugatti", The Book and Paper Group Annual 8 (1989) 27-38

This presentation focuses on the treatment of vellum and parchment. The specific application to the Bugatti furniture pieces is discussed in light of the special constraints of the vellum and parchment being adhered to furniture frames. The critical factor of environmental conditions is emphasized.


Corroyeur d'après l'Encyclopédie de Diderot et d'Alembert

CORROYER UN CUIR, (Corroyeur.) opération qui consiste à donner aux cuirs, en sortant des mains du Tanneur, des façons qui les rendant plus lisses, plus souples, plus agréables à la vûe, les disposent aux usages du Ceinturier, du Sellier, du Bourrelier, & d’autres ouvriers. On donne ces façons au bœuf, à la vache, au veau & au mouton, mais rarement au bœuf.

Deutsch: ?
English: Currier.
Español: Zurrador.
Français: Corroyeur.
Italiano: Callegari.
Português: Surrador.


"An evaluation of selected applied polymers for the treatment of parchment" by Abdel-Maksoud (2000)

Abdel-Maksoud, G.; "An evaluation of selected applied polymers for the treatment of parchment", in Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing, Rome (2000)

Representative samples of the new parchment were prepared to be in an advanced state of degradation by application of artificial heat ageing. The degraded aged samples are submitted to experiments concerning applied consolidation materials (polymers) on parchment. The purpose of this study is to establish if an increase in the properties of parchment can be attained with none or as less as possible interference with the appearance of the object. A comparison is made between six polymers by impregnation method. Investigation of some mechanical properties, change of color and the humidity sorption were used to evaluate the studied polymers. The results revealed that the polymers, which dissolved in organic solvents, were better than that dissolved in water.