Impact of freeze treatment for insect eradication... by Vonderschmitt (2005)

Vonderschmitt, F.; Auswirkungen von Gefrierbehandlungen zur Schädlingsbekämpfung auf die physikalischen Eigenschaften von Schafsleder in unterschiedlichen Gerbungen, Diplomarbeit vorgelegt dem Institut für Restaurierungs- und Konservierungswissenschaft der Fachhochschule Köln (2005)

Als Alternative zu den bekannten chemischen Schädlingsbekämpfungsmethoden warden seit den 1970er Jahren im musealen Bereich auch tiefe Temperaturen angewandt. Dabei herrscht eine verwirrende Vielzahl unterschiedlichster Gefrierverfahren. Für die vorliegende Diplomarbeit wurden daraus zwei ausgewählt an deren Beispiel im experimentellen Teil der Arbeit untersucht wurde, inwiefern durch eine Gefrierbehandlung die physikalischen Materialeigenschaften von Schafsleder in unterschiedlichen Gerbungen beeinflusst werden. Zudem wurde geprüft ob die beiden Verfahren das Material unterschiedlich beeinflussen und ob eine wiederholte Gefrierbehandlung bei Objekten aus Leder ratsam ist.

Title in English: Impact of freeze treatment for insect eradication on the physical properties of sheep leather in different tannings.

Low temperatures are chosen as an alternative to chemical insect eradication in museums since the 1970ies. Nowadays a great variety of freeze treatments is in use. Therefore two of them were chosen in this thesis to be tested for affecting physical properties of sheep leather with different tannings. The next step was to control whether they do affect physical properties of sheep leather differently from one another. Finally the use of multiple freeze treatment of items made of leather is discussed.


SC6000 surface coating for leather by Brewer (2006)

Brewer, T.; "SC6000 and Other Surface Coatings for Leather: composition and effectiveness", The Bonefolder 2(2) (2006) 33-35

From the introduction:
The field of conservation has recently adapted newer techniques for the coating of leather bindings as a measure of protection and aesthetic appearance. The much used, and older, method of treating leather with lanolin and neatsfoot oil is now avoided, as it does significant damage to the text when applied too heavily, migrating through the leather and causing staining and deterioration of the paper. Most commercially produced neatsfoot oil is made of lard, whose excess fatty acids can cause spew on the surface of the leather, while lanolin steals the skin’s natural moisture (Fredericks). Coating materials in current use include Marney’s Conservation Dressing, a solvent free mixture of waxes and oils; Pliantine; a beeswax and lanolin mixture; Klucel G, a hydroxyl propyl cellulose; and SC6000, an acrylic wax mixture. This paper aims to give characteristics of each, but will focus on the properties of SC6000.

The original report dated from 2004 is also available online at:


Industrie du cuir à la fin du Moyen Age par Braunstein (2007)

Braunstein, P.; "Production et travail dans les villes à la fin du Moyen Age", Revista da Faculdade de Letras História, III Série, Vol. 8 (2007) 11-23

Abstract: Departing from the application of the concept of industry to medieval economy, this article presents some possible approaches to the subject matter of production and work in the Middle Ages. In the organisation of the productive sectors, special emphasis is given to the leather sector, pointing out comparisons between three cities (Pisa, Freiburg and Cologne). One highlights the technical innovations (in the fustian industry and in the printing press) and the importance of water to siderurgy and textile production, as well as the urban impact that stemmed from the entire industrial development of the late Middle Ages. Finally, one stresses the importance of the complementarity existing between city and surrounding region, proposing also an approach to the different aspects related to the social dimension of work.


Oekonomische Encyklopädie von J. G. Krünitz online

The Oekonomische Encyklopädie is a German encyclopaedia started by Johann Georg Krünitz. It appeared in 242 volumes between 1773 and 1858 and each volume has about 600-800 pages.
It was originally planned to be a translation of two French-language encyclopaedias, Dictionnaire raisonné universel d'histoire naturelle (1764) and Encyclopédie Oeconomique ou Système général d'Oeconomie rustique, domestique et politique (1771–72), but developed into a separate work that much surpassed the originals. Significant parts were also based on the Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon by Johann Heinrich Zedler.
The volume 68 is dedicated to leather and a digitized version of this volume can be found at:


Brain tanning by Richter & Dettloff (2002)

Richter, M.; Dettloff, D.; “Experiments in hide brain tanning with a comparative analysis of stone and bone tools”, UW- La Crosse JUR, Vol.V (2002) 301-318

Abstract: White-tailed deer were a primary resource for native populations of the Midwest, serving as the principle source of protein and providing a great majority of the material goods used, such as hides for clothing. Processing the deer skins into usable hides, known as brain-tanning, was a highly evolved process. Tanning is defined as the process of making buckskin or leather from raw or green hides. The exact steps Native peoples used of this procedure are still debated today. In this study, we recreate the brain-tanning process as it was done by Midwest native populations at the time of European arrival. The focus of the study is on the use of stone tools and their effectiveness throughout the tanning process versus the use of bone tools and their effectiveness. This study reveals the most efficient and most likely used tool and material for specific aspects of the tanning process.


Gaitas-de-fole (bagpipes), Associação Portuguesa de Gaitas-de-fole

A Associação Portuguesa de Gaitas-de-Fole (http://www.gaitadefoles.net/) possui no seu website uma secção inteiramente dedicada à descrição de gaitas-de-fole de diferentes proveniências europeias, dando um particular destaque à portuguesa.
A gaita-de-fole é um instrumento musical tradicional em muitos países europeus. Trata-se de um aerofone não soprado directamente pela boca munido de um fole (reservatório flexível de ar). Em Portugal, os foles são tradicionalmente em pele de cabra ou de bezerro.

Tópicos disponíveis no website:
Gaitas-de-fole de todo o mundo (A world of bagpipes)
Breve descrição histórica (Brief historic description)
- O que é uma gaita-de-fole? (What is a bagpipe?)
- Elementos de uma gaita-de-fole (Elements of a bagpipe) 
- Como funciona? (How it works?)
- Classificação (Classification)