“Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and Scanning Probe Microscopy of Parchment” by Odlhya et al (2009)

Odlhya, M.; Theodorakopoulos, C.; Groot, J.; Bozec, L.; Horton, M.; “Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and Scanning Probe Microscopy of Parchment”, e-Preservation Science 6 (2009) 138-144

This paper describes the application of Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) together with Scanning Probe Microscopy (atomic force microscopy and micro-thermal analysis) on accelerated aged and archival parchment samples. Damage assessment by ATR-FTIR of collagen, the main constituent of parchment, was based on spectral changes in collagen, in particular within the amide I carbonyl stretching region.
This is known to be sensitive to changes in the triple helical structure of collagen. Damage assessment by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was based on changes in the periodic D spacing of the collagen fibrils. Measurements made on the same samples showed that in damaged samples there was partial and eventually complete loss in the D spacing of the collagen fibrils. This was particularly evident in accelerated aged samples subjected to pollutant gas (SO2). Micro-thermal analysis (micro-TA) of the same regions of parchment showed differences in the thermal behaviour on the micron-scale. The observed transitions occurred over a broader temperature range with increase in damage. In addition the same parchment samples were subjected to controlled environment testing using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). This revealed that damage in parchment had an effect on its dimensional response to increase in RH; the more damaged samples showed a lower response to changes in RH than the less damaged. So damage at the nano-scale, as indicated by AFM, can be related to changes observed at the macro-scale, as indicated by mechanical testing, and this influences the response of parchment to RH.


"Egg" armchair by Arne Jacobsen (1957),The MET Museum of Art

"Arne Jacobsen: 'Egg' armchair (61.7.46)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/11/eue/ho_61.7.46.htm (October 2006)


"Studies of ancient Egytian footwear ..." by Veldmeijer (2009)

Veldmeijer, A. J.; "Studies of ancient Egytian footwear. Technological aspects. Part XV. Leather curled-toe ankle shoes", PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology 6 (4) (2009) 1-21

In ancient Egypt sandals were a common commodity despite the fact that people must have been used to walking on bare feet. Shoes were less common though several types are known from the archaeological record. Despite the many examples of footwear, however, detailed studies are lacking. The present paper presents the closed shoes ‘curled-toe ankle shoes’, that are made of leather. The focus, as is usual in this series, lies on manufacturing technology; other topics are discussed in passing. A preliminary typology is proposed.