“Thermal analysis on historical leather bookbinding treated with PEG and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles” by Ershad-Langroudi and Mirmontahai (2015)

Ershad-Langroudi, Amir; Mirmontahai, Akram, “Thermal analysis on historical leather bookbinding treated with PEG and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles”, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 120(2) (2015) 1119–1127.
DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4461-z (SpringerLink, restricted access)

Thermal analysis approaches give the opportunity to investigate structural changes in historical leather like as dehydration, crystallization, and melting process. An historical leather sample from nineteenth century was considered in this study. The leather samples were treated with a suspension of nano-hydroxyapatite and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) in an aqueous solution. The treatment effects on the structural changes in historical leather were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). DSC technique has been employed to study the thermal-associated changes in historical leather to an artificial aging and the conservation of nanocomposite treatment. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal gravimetry (TG–DTG) are used as useful methods for the investigation of the mass losses of the treated and untreated samples at the progressive heating in N2 gas flow. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy studies indicated the collagen fibril changes in treated sample in comparison with those of untreated sample and after accelerated aging test.


“Trois centres de ganterie : Millau, Niort, Saint-Junien" par Meynier (1934)

 Meynier, A., “Trois centres de ganterie : Millau, Niort, Saint-Junien”, Annales de Géographie 43(246) (1934) 648–652.
Doi: 10.3406/geo.1934.10752 (Persée)


Les animaux à fourrures par Kretzschmar (1923)

Kretzschmar, Charles, Les animaux à fourrures: ornée dans le texte et hors texte de 105 gravures et dessins de coupes en photogravure et en phototypie et comprenant la description des animaux et de leur pelage, la valeur et l'emploi des pelleteries, l'apprêt des peaux à fourrures, le travail du pelletier, le travail du fourreur (2e édition, revue et augmentée), Chalon-sur-Saône, Édition Ch. Kretzschmar et G. Bosselet (1923).
URL (Gallica)


“Paging through history: parchment as a reservoir of ancient DNA for next generation sequencing” by Teasdale et al (2015)

Teasdale, M. D.; van Doorn, N. L.; Fiddyment, S.; Webb, C. C.; O’Connor, T.; Hofreiter, M.; Collins, M. J.; Bradley, D. G., “Paging through history: parchment as a reservoir of ancient DNA for next generation sequencing”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Science 370(1660) (2015), p.20130379.
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2013.0379 (The Royal Society Publishing)

Parchment represents an invaluable cultural reservoir. Retrieving an additional layer of information from these abundant, dated livestock-skins via the use of ancient DNA (aDNA) sequencing has been mooted by a number of researchers. However, prior PCR-based work has indicated that this may be challenged by cross-individual and cross-species contamination, perhaps from the bulk parchment preparation process. Here we apply next generation sequencing to two parchments of seventeenth and eighteenth century northern English provenance. Following alignment to the published sheep, goat, cow and human genomes, it is clear that the only genome displaying substantial unique homology is sheep and this species identification is confirmed by collagen peptide mass spectrometry. Only 4% of sequence reads align preferentially to a different species indicating low contamination across species. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest an upper bound of contamination at 5%. Over 45% of reads aligned to the sheep genome, and even this limited sequencing exercise yield 9 and 7% of each sampled sheep genome post filtering, allowing the mapping of genetic affinity to modern British sheep breeds. We conclude that parchment represents an excellent substrate for genomic analyses of historical livestock.