"Autoxidation of lipids in parchment" by Strlič et al (2009)

Strlič, M.; Kralj Cigić, I.; Rabin, I.; Kolar, J.; Pihlar, B.; Cassar, M.; “Autoxidation of lipids in parchment”, Polymer Degradation Stability 94 (6) (2009) 886-890
DOI: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2009.03.003

Historic parchment is a macromolecular material, which is complex due to its natural origin, inhomogeneity of the skin structure, unknown environmental history and potential localised degradation. Most research into its stability has so far focussed on thermal and structural methods of analyses. Using gas chromatographic analysis of the atmosphere surrounding parchment during oxidation, we provide the experimental evidence on the production of volatile aldehydes, which can be the products of lipid autoxidation. Oxidation of parchment with different aldehyde emissions was additionally followed in situ using chemiluminometry and the same techniques were used to evaluate the oxidation of differently delipidised parchment. It was shown that the production of peroxides and the emission of aldehydes from the material decrease with lower lipid content. Building on this evidence, we can conclude that the presence of lipids (either initially present in the skin or resulting from conservation intervention) leads to oxidative degradation of collagen and that the non-destructive analysis of the emission of volatiles could be used as a quick tool for evaluation of parchment stability.


Shield, Kenya or Tanzania, The Met Museum of Art

"Shield [Kenya or Tanzania; Maasai people] (1978.412.644)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1978.412.644 (October 2006)


The manufature of leather by Davis (1885)

Davis, C. T.; The manufacture of leather: being a description of all of the processes for the tanning, tawing, currying, finishing, Carey Baird, Philadelphia (1885)
URL (Internet Archive)

From the preface:
Considering the importance of the leather industry, it seems strange that up to the present time it should in technical literature have been so much neglected. There is not in England nor is there in America a single current book broadly treating all the branches of this subject, and the object of the present volume is fully to explain the details of manufacturing all kinds of leather in common use, and produced from hides and skins by the agency of the usual tanning substances. The author has not been satisfied to make use of the matter found in obsolete books, but has preferred to present a view of the state of the art as it to-day exists in the United States. The tools, machines, and in fact nearly all the mechanical appliances illustrated in the present treatise are of American origin, and in common use in the numerous tanneries and leather-finishing shops of the country.
The collection, compilation, and collation of the vast amount of technical and detailed information attainable relating to the various processes, and to the construction of the numerous machines herein described, have required almost herculean labor. But the work has been greatly aided by many of the leading tanners and curriers of the United States, who have not only placed at the author's disposal every opportunity for personal observation, but have promptly and courteously responded to his letters when containing requests for information. It is doubtful if such facilities as have been extended to him would be granted to a like professional writer on technical subjects in any other country in the world.


"Eastern and western influences on Hungarian footwear of the 13-17th centuries" by Kissné Bendefy (2009)

Kissné Bendefy, M.; "Eastern and Western influences on Hungarian footwear of the thirteenth-seventeenth centuries", in I. Éri (ed.), Conserving textiles: Studies in Honour of Ágnes Timár-Balázsy, ICCROM Conservation Studies 7 (2009) 87-96

From the text:
This paper summarizes some of the conclusions from our study of the type and technology of Hungarian footwear between the 13th and 17th centuries; this study has been undertaken for nearly ten years by the author and Judit Bakay-Perjés. Our research has been based on finds from archaeological excavations of Hungarian sites and on objects that were taken into historic collections; most of the finds are complete shoes and boots, and are primarily men's footwear.