Ramsden Shagreen Opera Monocular, c. 1770, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona

This monocular has a short round parallel cardboard barrel, covered with shagreen. The objective is contained in a brass cell and is a single non-achromatic lens (possibly a replacement). It has one cardboard draw, covered in red leather with tooled on silver-colored floral designs. The single eye lens, which is cracked, is mounted in a flared eyecup made of a material which could be ivory painted or colored black. The two black rings at either end of the barrel are made of this same material. It is signed "RAMSDEN LONDON" on the draw, with the eyecup to the right. It comes with a red leather-covered cardboard or wood case.


"... piel en la indumentaria (Murcia, ss.XIII-XV)" por Martínez Martínez (2002)

Martínez Martínez, M.; "Oficios, artesanía y usos de la piel en la indumentaria (Murcia, ss. XIII-XV)", Historia, instituciones, documentos 29 (2002) 237-274

Análisis del trabajo de la piel y del cuero cola Murcia bajomedieval, que trata: La organización del espacio urbano y periurbano para dichas actividades, además de la identidad de los artesanos; la evolución y desarrollo corporativos de los oficios de la industria del cuero y sus efectos sociales y medioambientales; y, finalmente, los usos de la piel y el cuero en la indumentaria, representativa de estructura social.

Analysis of the use of skins and leather in late medieval Murcia, dealing with the following: the organisation of urban and suburban areas for such activities, in addition the identity of the craftsmen; the corporate evolution and development of trades in the leather industry and their social and environmental effects; finally, the use of skins and leather in clothing, as representative of social structure.


"Restoring leather castors" by Barrington

Michael Barrington, "Restoring leather castors"

From the text:
The origin of the castor goes back to certainly the early 16th century when, 'baby cages' and invalid chairs are known to have been equipped with wheels. They were used in England certainly towards the end of 17th Century and by 1690 there was an established castor-making trade in London. Castors, to begin with, were simple hardwood wheels mounted on horizontal axles but by 1700 vertical spindles mounting jaws in which horizontal axles and wheels were carried were in use. The wheels were of wood, probably boxwood which, by the 1730s, tended to be replaced by leather wheels and then brass wheels.


Cuir bouilli case, c.1450–1500, MET Museum of Art

"Case (Etui) with an amorous inscription [Italy] (50.53.1)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/nupt/ho_50.53.1.htm